Professor Berok Khesnevis of University of Southern California in LA takes out a patent on ceramic extrusion.
Khosnevis focuses on 3D construvtion printing (Contour crafting).
Ruper Soar, Loughborough University gets funded for upscaling 3D printing to construction purposes.
Enrico Dini, Pisa, Italy, takes out patent for the D-Shape technology (binder jetting).
Loughborough begins to 3D print concrete (Skanska).
UCS University of Southern California - 2000
- Mobile gantry type system, where the crane and robot not only prints the concrete but can also apply various other materials and elements right on the spot of where the building should go up.
- Theoretically very developed and backed up by 111 patents (costing 1,1 mill. USD to obtain)/li>
- Most advanced print head with 3 parallel extrusions
- Not much printed in real life
Italy - 2005
- Powder material
- The 3D printer injects a binder to solidify the powder (can be cement or sandstone)
- The ability to build real 3D/ complex forms, difficult with conventional formwork construction.
Used for unique constructions, like the first 3D printed bridge in the world found in Spain
England - 2003;2008
- Gantry type printer
- Focus on the new dimensional and architectural possibilities related to 3D construction printing
- Primarily worked on components (like façade facing) rather than whole buildings
- Components are prepared for insulation, reinforcement etc.
- Since 2014 worked closely with ABB and Skanska
- Studies of compression strength of the various recipes; achieved 100 Mpa
- Very little printed in real life